Which bird is referred to as a “windhover” in some areas?

I have always been fascinated by the diverse and remarkable world of birds. From their vibrant feathers to their incredible ability to soar through the sky, these creatures have captured the imagination of humans for centuries. Among the countless species that grace our planet, there is one particular bird that has garnered attention for its unique nickname – the “windhover”. But which bird is it? In certain areas, this term is used to refer to a magnificent raptor known as the Eurasian kestrel. With its hovering hunting technique and elegant presence, the windhover truly lives up to its captivating moniker.

Description of a Windhover

A windhover, also known as a kite, is a type of bird that belongs to the Accipitridae family. These birds are known for their graceful flight and impressive hunting abilities. With their streamlined bodies and long, broad wings, windhovers are perfectly adapted for soaring effortlessly in the sky. They have a wingspan that can range from 50 to 90 cm, depending on the species.

Physical Appearance

Windhovers display a variety of colors and markings, depending on the species. Generally, they have a combination of brown, gray, and white feathers. Some windhovers, like the kestrel, have distinctive markings such as a rusty brown back, white undersides with black spots, and a barred tail. Black-winged kites, on the other hand, have predominantly white plumage with black wingtips and a striking red eye. Red kites are known for their reddish-brown body, deeply forked tail, and pale head.

Apart from their unique colorations, windhovers have sharp, curved beaks and powerful talons which they use for hunting prey. Their eyesight is also exceptional, allowing them to spot small animals from great distances while soaring high above.

Hunting Behavior

Windhovers are renowned for their hunting abilities, which involve a combination of agility, patience, and acute senses. These birds primarily feed on small mammals, birds, insects, and reptiles. They employ a hunting technique known as hovering, where they soar in mid-air, meticulously scanning the ground for movement. Once they spot their prey, they plunge downwards with astonishing speed, using their sharp talons to seize their victim. This swift and precise hunting style has earned them the name “windhover,” as they appear to hover effortlessly in the wind as they hunt.

Types of Windhover Birds

There are several species of windhovers, each with its own unique characteristics and distribution. Some of the most commonly known windhover species include the kestrel, black-winged kite, and red kite.


The kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is a small to medium-sized windhover bird that can be found in various parts of the world. These birds are known for their vibrant rusty brown back, white undersides with black spots, and a barred tail. Kestrels are highly adaptable and can thrive in a wide range of habitats, from open farmland and grasslands to forests and urban areas. They are skilled hunters, capable of hovering effortlessly in the air while searching for prey.

Black-winged Kite

The black-winged kite (Elanus caeruleus) is a striking windhover species with predominantly white plumage, black wingtips, and a red eye. They are native to parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Black-winged kites prefer open habitats such as grasslands, marshes, and agricultural fields. They are known for their distinctive hunting technique, where they hover in mid-air and scan the ground for small animals to swoop down and capture.

Red Kite

The red kite (Milvus milvus) is a majestic windhover species with reddish-brown plumage, a deeply forked tail, and a pale head. These birds can be found in parts of Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom and Spain. Red kites are highly skilled scavengers, known for their agility and acrobatic flight while searching for carrion. They prefer a variety of habitats, including woodlands, farmlands, and coastal areas.

Distribution and Habitat

Windhovers have diverse geographical ranges and can be found in various habitats across the globe.

Geographical Range

Kestrels have a wide distribution and can be found in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Black-winged kites are native to parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Red kites, once widespread across Europe, faced drastic decline but have been successfully reintroduced in certain regions, particularly the United Kingdom and Spain.

Preferred Habitats

Windhovers exhibit adaptability to different habitats, each with its own preferred ecological niche. Kestrels are commonly found in open areas such as fields, grasslands, and meadows, but they can also thrive in urban environments. Black-winged kites prefer habitats rich in open spaces, including grasslands, savannas, and wetlands. Red kites typically inhabit woodland areas, often nesting in tall trees and utilizing areas with a mixture of grasslands and farmlands for foraging.

Migration and Breeding

Windhovers undertake annual migrations and have specific breeding habits that vary among species.

Migration Patterns

Some windhover species, such as the kestrel, exhibit partial migrations, where individuals from colder regions migrate to warmer areas during the winter months, while others may remain in their breeding grounds year-round. For example, kestrels breeding in Europe might migrate to Africa during winter. Black-winged kites are mainly resident birds, meaning they do not migrate extensively. Red kites showcase migratory behavior in Europe, with birds from northern regions moving south during colder months.

Breeding Season and Nesting Habits

Windhovers have specific breeding seasons and nesting habits tailored to their ecological requirements. Kestrels typically breed in the spring, building their nests in tree holes, rocky crevices, or man-made structures like buildings or nest boxes. Black-winged kites construct nests in the forked branches of trees or on telegraph poles and frequently reuse them each breeding season. Red kites form large stick nests in tall trees, and both males and females participate in building and maintaining the nest.

Conservation Status

Windhovers, like many other bird species, face various threats and challenges in their ecosystems.

Threats and Challenges

Loss of suitable habitat due to urbanization, intensive agriculture, and deforestation poses a significant threat to windhovers. These birds may also suffer from the use of pesticides, which can contaminate their prey and impact their overall health. Additionally, collisions with man-made structures, such as power lines and wind turbines, can cause injury or death to windhovers during their flights.

Conservation Efforts

Numerous conservation efforts are in place to protect and conserve windhover populations. Initiatives for creating protected areas, habitat restoration, and the installation of artificial nesting platforms have been implemented to provide safe spaces for windhovers to breed and thrive. Education and awareness programs aim to promote responsible land use practices and reduce the use of harmful pesticides. These conservation efforts are crucial to ensuring the long-term survival of windhover species.

Cultural Significance

Windhovers have held cultural significance in various societies throughout history, captivating the human imagination and leaving their mark on folklore, mythology, literature, and art.

Folklore and Mythology

In certain areas, windhovers have been portrayed in folklore and mythology, often associated with traits such as grace, resilience, and freedom. They have been revered as symbols of protection, good fortune, and divine messengers in different cultures.

Symbolism in Literature and Art

Windhovers have inspired numerous poets, writers, and artists who sought to capture their beauty and symbolism in their works. From poems to paintings, windhovers have been depicted as symbols of freedom, grace, and the ability to rise above challenges.

In conclusion, windhovers, commonly known as kites, are remarkable birds with their graceful flight, impressive hunting abilities, and diverse species. From the kestrel and black-winged kite to the iconic red kite, these birds occupy a variety of habitats across the world. Despite facing threats such as habitat loss and pesticide contamination, conservation efforts are in place to safeguard their populations. Windhovers have also left their mark in human culture, inspiring folklore, mythology, literature, and art. The windhover’s ability to soar effortlessly in the wind continues to captivate our imagination and reminds us of the beauty and resilience of the natural world.






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